The IUPUI Principles of Undergraduate Learning (PULs) were developed in 1997 and have been praised by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) as being instrumental in shaping the LEAP (Liberal Education and America's Promise) Essential Learning Outcomes. The PULs provide a principles-based framework for the learning outcomes that every undergraduate student should attain. At the campus level, attainment of the PULs for seniors is measured as a continuing assessment strategy. Some professional schools have mapped the PULs to professional accreditation standards. For example, the Kelley School of Business adopted the Principles of Business Learning in 2004, and the School of Nursing has further differentiated PUL-based learning outcomes for each level of the undergraduate experience.